Death on the Nile (i.e. Funeral Rites)

Ancient Egyptians believed in the continuation of life, even after death. Thus, they went through a long process to ensure that the body remained intact even after the person had died.

Basically, their main goals were to make sure a person had their body and their stuff when they went into the afterlife.

Beginning
In the past, the desert climate preserved the people that were buried in it by quickly dehydrating the bodies, but when the Egyptians began burying in their dead in coffins, they discovered that the bodies quickly rotted since they were walled off from the desert air. So, they came up with an elaborate process to preserve the body after death.

Time Period
The mummification is changed through time period. In the Old Kingdom (ca. 2750-2250 B.C.), Egyptians only mummified their kings. In the New Kingdom (ca. 1539-1070 B.C.), Egyptians would mummified everyone.

a short flash game explaining the process of mummification

Description
Egyptians would clean the dead body first and them they would take out all of the organs, including brain, lungs, stomach, intestines and liver EXCEPT for the heart, because the dead person needed their heart for the weighing of the heart when he goes through the processing before the afterlife.

Each organ would be put into a jars called canopic jars. Each jar has the head of a god on it. The jars go thus:
Imesty>human headed god>liver.
Hapy>baboon headed god>lungs.
Daumetef>jackal headed>stomach.
Qebehseneuf>falcon head>intestines

Then the mummifiers would dry out the dead person. Finally, the Egyptian would wrap the dead person in linens. Somewhere between the first and second layers, they would also put protective amulets into wrappings. (Egyptians also wore amulets in everyday life.)

This process generally took severals months to complete. During this time, the workers on the tomb of the dead person would be feverishly working to finnish the monument.

Some photos:
A child mummy
King Tut mummy
The tomb of the mummy