Roman Art and Architecture

Key Works

Bridal Couple’s Sarcophagus from Cerveteri, 520 BCE

Roman Portrait bust, 1st century BCE

Republican Era portrait bust, photo cc leoncillo sabino

Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (High Priest)

Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, public domain photo

Augustus of Prima Porta

Ara Pacis

Frescoes from the Villa of the Mysteries

Bronze Head of Vespasian (Biography of Vespasian)

The Colosseum

The Pantheon

Colossal statue of Constantine

Colossal Head of Constantine, cc Small

Vocabulary

Art Vocabulary

Verism
Cameo
Intaglio

Architectural vocabulary

Atrium
Impluvium
Aqueduct
Hypocaust
Caldarium
Insula

History Vocabulary

Patricians
Plebeians/Plebes
Republican
Julio-Claudian
Flavian

Names

Romulus
Remus
Julius Caesar
Augustus
Vespasian
Hadrian
Constantine

Important Dates

For our purposes, these are the most important dates. The dates in bold are the ones you MUST KNOW for the final exam.

753 BCE Romulus founds Rome and becomes its first king.

509 BCE Expulsion of Etruscan kings, creation of Roman Republic.

149 BCE Rome destroys its main rival, Carthage.

146 BCE Greece becomes a Roman province.

120-30 The late Roman Empire, a period of civil unrest and civil war.

59-44 BCE Julius Caesar’s career, from his appointment as Consul to his Assassination.

31 BCE Beginning of the Roman Empire, the Augustan Era, the Pax Romana and the Julio-Claudian Dynasty.

68 CE Nero assassinated; Julio-Claudian Dynasty begins.

69-96 CE Flavian Dynasty

96-192 The Antonine Dynasty

313 Constantine declares freedom of religion for Christians. (Edict of Milan)

330 Constantine moves the capital of the empire to Constantinople, aka Byzantium, aka New Rome.

392 Christianity becomes the only legal religion in the empire.

392 The Empire is divided between East and West.

410 City of Rome sacked by Visigoths.

476 The last Western emperor is deposed.

Web Resources

Timelines

Roman Timeline

The basic names and dates, from professors Professors Graubart and Hyams at Cornell University.

Timelines for Ancient Roman History

A very detailed timeline from in A Companion to Latin Studies (1921) by Sir John Edwin Sandys, adapted by Claude Pavur of Saint Louis University.